Daumier’s Colleagues: The Illustrators

Caricature by A.Darjou from Le Charivari of Nov.18, 1867. “Le Déménagement du CHARIVARI”.
Daumier is the third person from left, pulling the cart. The print shows the moving of the Charivari team to a new location.

These artists worked during Daumier’s time at Aubert’s publishing company:
BARIC, Jules Jean Antoine (Sainte-Catherine de Fierbois 1825-1905 Monnaie)His drawings, reproductions and caricatures are showing events, fashions and customs of the second half of the 19th century. His oeuvre is shown at the musée des Beaux-Arts of Tours.
BEAUMONT, Edouard de (Lannion, 1821- Paris, January 12, 1888)

painter, lithographer, aquarellist
Beaumont studied with Boisellier and his first exhibition was at the Salon of 1838 “Une vue de Cornay”. After a trip to Italy he became a devoted genre painter. He founded the “Société des Aquarellistes” and wrote for “Le Moniteur” and “La Gazette des Beaux-Arts”. In 1882 he published “L’Épée et les femmes”, and in 1885 “Fleur de belles épées”. He contributed to “Le Charivari”, “Le Journal amusant”, “Le Journal pour rire” and “La Revue pittoresque”.
BENJAMIN (Roubaud, Benjamin): (Roquevaire 1811-1847 Alger)He was a painter, lithographer and caricaturist. Between 1833 and 1847 he showed his paintings at the Salon where he had a fine reputation. His talent however was in his drawings and caricatures. As a collaborator of Daumier, Grandville and others he worked between 1830 and 1835 for La Caricature and Le Charivari, as well as others like La Mode.
BERTALL (Charles Constant Albert Nicolas d’Arnoux de Limoges Saint Saens) (Paris 1820-1882 Soyons)

Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire April 23, 1852

Illustrator, caricaturist and lithographer. He is known to be one of the most prolific illustrators of 19th century France and is one of the pioneers of photography. His drawings appeared in Le Magasin pittoresque, Le Musée des familles, La Semaine des enfants, Le Journal pour tous, and others. Between 1849 and 1855 he provided 3’600 drawings for popular novels. His numerous caricatures appeared at L’Illustration, La Semaine, Le Journal pour rire, to name just a few.

Workshop of wood engravers
These three names were inseparable and thus their initials often appeared together on one print. Andrew was an Englishman who associated at first with Adolphe Best, then with Leloir.

BIROUSTE, J. (dates unknown)He was a zinc and wood engraver, born in Paris and died in Belgium.
BOUCHOT, Frédéric (1798 - 18?)Bouchot worked for numerous Parisian magazines, did many titles for musical pieces, collaborated on comical albums and did some wood engravings.
CHAM (Paris, January 26, 1818 or 1819 - September 1879, Paris)
(pseudonym of Amédée de Noé)

Artist, caricaturist

Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire, April 23, 1852
Cham was a scholar for drawings at the atelier of Charlet, then with Paul Delaroche. His first album in 1839 contained humoristic drawings with texts and was edited by Charles Philipon. Cham joined "Le Charivari" in December 1843 and produced drawings for numerous other papers on various subjects, especially on the artistic life and on the official Salons. His stile was strongly influenced by Daumier.
DARJOU, Alfred (Paris 1832-1874)

Caricature by A.Darjou from Le Charivari of Nov.18, 1867. “Le Déménagement du CHARIVARI”. (Detail)
Darjou was a French painter and draughtsman, studied under his father Victor Darjou, a portrait painter and under Léon Cogniet, and exhibited first at the Salon of 1853.He made numerous designs for the 'Illustration' and the 'Monde illustré.'
DORÉ, Gustave (1833 - 1883)

Painter and engraver, expert wood engraver

Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire April 23, 1852
He did many book illustrations, such as "Les Contes Drolatiques" by Balzac, works by Rabelais etc.
DRANER, dit Jules RENARD (Liège, 1833 - Paris, 1926)

Caricature by Etienne Carjat
He started very early to work for newspapers where he published drawings and caricatures. Among other papers he joined the Uylenspiegel, founded by Félicien Rops. 1861 he moved to Paris and became a specialist in military caricatures. He also created comic costumes for theater plays, especially for most of Offenbach's works. He worked with the best known papers like: Charivari, L'Eclipse, Le Monde Classique, Paris-Comique, L'Illustration, Le Monde Illustré, Le journal amusant.
FOREST, Eugène Hippolyte (Strasbourg, October 24,1808 - ?)

Painter and lithographer
He was a scholar of Camille Roqueplan. Forest appears in the Salon of Paris from 1847 to 1866. As an engraver he produced a certain number of albums, especially caricatures in the manner of Henri Mannière.
FOUSSEREAU, Joseph-Marie (Paris, December 5,1809 - ?)

Painter, aquarellist and illustrator
Foussereau entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1827 and worked under Guillon Lethière. His first public appearance was at the Salon of 1831 with "Murat sauvé par un dragon", after that he specialised on studies of horses and uniforms. As an illustrator, he did vignettes for several works: "Voyages pittoresques de Taylor et de Nodier"; "Oeuvres complètes de Lamartine", and others. Besides that he also did lithographs for "L'Artillerie française" in 1829 and for "Uniformes de la garde nationale, de l'armée et de la marine française" from 1830 to 1832, and single plates on the Revolution of 1830.
GAVARNI (S.H.G. Chevalier) (Paris, January 13, 1804 - Paris, November 24, 1866)
(pseudonym of Sellpice Hippolyte Guillaume Chevalier)

Painter and lithographer

Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire Aug.21, 1852
In 1829, the Salon received an aquarelle from an employee of the cataster of Tarbes with the title "Une vue de Gavarni". The editor mistakenly took it as the name of the artist and gave Hippolyte Chevalier an involuntary pseudonym which the latter kept for as long as he lived. The first lithographs of Gavarni date back to 1824. By the time of his death one counted 2700, which were published from 1830 on in numerous papers and bound into albums by Aubert at the Librairie Nouvelle. Apart from that, he did many drawings for wood engravings to be published in books and newspapers of the romantic period. Imprisoned for debts he found new material for his studies in prison. In 1847, he left for England where he travelled extensively and did many drawings. He took part in the exposition of the Royal Academy in 1850. Back in Paris he produced new drawings for new series like "Les Partageuses", "Histoire de politique", "Les Propos de Thomas Virloque". He also did some posters. His entire work counts about 8000 pieces.
GIGOUX, Jean (Besançon, January 8, 1806 - Besançon, December 12 or 13, 1894).

Painter and lithographer.
Gigoux studied at the Académie of Besançon, then at the Beaux-Arts de Paris in 1828. He debuted at the Salon of 1831 with some pencil portraits and in 1833 he started working for the "Magasin Pittoresque". Il contributed to "Gil Blas" and illustrated some books, for example: "Chansons de Béranger" (1829), "Lettres d'Abailard et d'Héloise" (1839) and "L'Écuyer Dauberon" (1832).
GILL, André. His real name was Louis-Alexandre Gosset de Guines. Born in Paris on Oct. 17, 1840, died in Charenton on May 1, 1885.

Caricaturist and chansonnier

During the second Empire his caricatures appeared in the satirical papers La Lune, L'Èclipse, La Rue, Le Charivari. He became editor in chief of La Lune Rousse.
GRANDVILLE (J.I.I.Gérare) (September 3, 1803 - ? 1847)
(pseudonym of Jean Ignace Isidore Gérard)

Illustrator and caricaturist
Grandville, the son and nephew of miniaturists, grandson of comedians, worked for his father before leaving for Paris at the age of 23. After an apprenticeship at Mansion, then at Hippolyte Lecomte, he started drawing costumes for the Opéra-Comique, worked for magazines and published some albums of minor importance. In 1839, at the age of 26 he became famous overnight: his caricatures of men with the heads of animals attracted immediate attention and imitators. In 1838, the editor Fournier commissioned The surrealists saluted him as one of their predecessors and he is generally seen as one of the most important caricaturists of the 19th century.
GRÉVIN, Alfred (Epineuil 1827-1892 Champignolles).

Sculptor and caricaturist
Created costumes for the theater. He worked for the newspaper Le Gaulois, then Journal Amusant, Petit Journal pour Rire and Le Charivari. Together with Adrien Huart, he founded in 1869 l'Almanach des Parisiennes.
HADOL, Paul (signed his name & pseudonyms like : JOB, WHITE) : (Remiremont 1835-1975 Paris)Hadol worked as a caricaturist for Le Gaulois, Le Journal amusant, High Life, Le Charivari, Le Monde comique, La Vie Parisienne and L'Éclipse under his real name. On other occasions he used a pseudonym.

During the Franco-Prussian War, Hadol published the picture series La Ménagerie impériale, in which he caricatured the members of the disgraced Bonaparte family, above all Napoleon III and his wife Eugénie de Montijo.
JULIEN, Bernard-Romain (Bayonne, November 16, 1802 - Bayonne, December 3, 1871)

Painter and lithographer
Julien showed his paintings, drawings and lithographs at the Salon of Paris from 1833 to 1859. He became famous especially as author of drawing models: "Études aux deux crayons, d'après les maîtres de l'école classique". He also did portraits.
LE PETIT, Alfred (Aumale 1841-1909 Levallois-Perret)
LEEROY (V.A.Morland)
MONNIER, Henry Bonaventure (Paris 1895-1877 Paris)

Caricature by Carjat
MORLAND, Valère (signs his name & pseudonyms like : BOBB, LEROY, KAB, VALIO, MOMUS) (Les Sables d'Olonne 1846- ... [press cartoons published untill 1904])
NUMA (dates unknown)
(pseudonym of Pierre Numa Bassaget)
Numa did drawings, lithographs and caricatures between 1863 and 1868. In 1848 he participated at the Salon. He worked for "La Caricature" and specialised in the erotic genre.
PELCOQ, Jules (signs his name & pseudonyms like : JIPÉ, PIPEY) (Belgium 1825-1887 Paris)
PETIT, Pierre


Caricature by Etienne Carjat
PHILIPON, Charles (Lyon, April 19, 1806 - Paris, January 25, 1862)

Caricaturist and journalist.

Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire Feb.27, 1852
He was the son of a wallpaper merchant and at the age of 17 he entered the atelier of Gras, where he remained for 3 years. He then returned to Lyon and worked in his fathers company before going back to Paris in 1823. After the July Revolution he founded the satirical magazine: "La Caricature". It was directed against the politicians but ended by having to deal with dozens of lawsuits. On November 1, 1832 he founded "Le Charivari".
PIGAL, Edme Jean (Paris, 1798 - Sens, 1873)

A major French nineteenth century artist and caricaturist, Edme Jean Pigal studied art in Paris in the studio of Baron Gros. He first exhibited his paintings at the Paris Salon in 1827 and continued to annually exhibit his art there for more than thirty years. Pigal's early art was mainly in the medium of lithography. After 1838 he turned more towards painting, particularly religious and historical scenes commissioned by the French government. His last years were spent as a professor of art at the Lycée in Sens.
RAFFET, Denis Auguste Marie (Paris 1804-1860 Genova, Italy)

French lithographer and illustrator
student of Charlet and of Gros. He attained an individual style in his series depicting Napoleon I and his soldiers. His most notable work was a series of lithographs (1850) of the French siege of Rome. An excellent draftsman, Raffet illustrated numerous works, among them the Histoire de la révolution française of Adolphe Thiers.
RANDON (Randonesberg, Gilbert) : (Lyons 1814-1884).He is Nadar's nephew.
STOP (Louis Gabriel Pierre Bernard MOREL-RETZ) (Dijon 1825-1899 Dijon)He first studied law at the University of Dijon and worked as a lawyer. Following his artistic interest he took drawing lessons and became a successful artist showing his paintings at the Salon in Paris in 1857, 1864 and 1865. At the end of the second empire he started drawing caricatures under his pseudonym STOP. His humorous illustrations have been published in the Charivari and Journal amusant.
TRAVIÈS, (Traviès de Villers, Charles-Joseph) (Wülflingen, Switzerland, February 21, 1804 - Paris, August 13, 1859)

Painter and caricaturist
Traviès came from the atelier of François Joseph Hein at the Beaux-Arts, debuted as a genre painter at the Salon of 1823, then dedicated himself to industrial drawing, cloth and wallpaper. He made himself a name with his creation of the figure of the hunchback Mayeux. Collaborator at "La Caricature" and "Le Charivari". He also did illustrations for novels by Balzac (1842-1855).
WHITE (Hadol, P.)

Daumier’s Colleagues: The Writers

Caricature by Hadol from Le Charivari of January 1, 1867

Carte de Visite du CHARIVARI

Daumier is the second person from left in the bottom row, sitting on the floor between Leroy and Cham. Hadol himself is the first person on the right in the second row. Darjou is the first person on the left in the second row.

The print shows the team of the Charivari.

ACHARD, Louis Amédée Eugène (Marseille, April 19, 1814 - Paris, March 25 mars, 1875)

Writer, journalist and publicist.
Achard published litterary articles in "Le Sémaphore de Marseille", "Le Vert-vert", "L'Entr'acte", "Le Charivari", "Le Courrier français", "Le Journal des Débats", "Le Moniteur", "L'Époque". He was named chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. He wrote several novels such as "La Belle-Rose", "La Robe de Nessus", "La Chasse Royale" as well as theater and vaudeville plays.
ALTAROCHE, Marie-Michel-Agénor (Issoire, April 18 avril, 1811 - Vaux, 1884)

Caricature by Benjamin. Le Charivari 1837 or 1838
Altaroche published his first satirical work written in verses in 1831 "La chambre et les écoles". He offered his collaboration to the republican press, to publications like "Le Courrier des électeurs", "La Révolution de 1830", "La Tribune", "Le Diable boiteux" and "La Populaire". In 1834 he became director of "Le Charivari", a position he held until 1848. He was also director of "Journal du peuple" in 1842 and of "L'Almanach du mois" in 1844. He was a commissioner of the provisionary government in the Departement of Puy-de-Dôme. In 1848 he was elected republican mayor of Clermont, Charras and Trélat. He published several works: "Chansons", "La Réforme et la révolution" and "Les Aventures de Victor Augevol". He wrote theater plays like: "Lestocq", "Le Corrégidor de Pamplune" and "La Coiffure de Cassandre". He was very much involved in the administration of the theaters "l'Odéon" and "les Folies-Nouvelles".
AUDEBRAND, Philibert (Saint-Amand, December 31 décembre, 1815 - Paris, September 10 septembre, 1906)
(pseudonymes: J. Manzoni, Alpha, Eug. Duvernay, Maxime Parr, and Henri Plassan)
Audebrand published his first satirical verses in a paper of the republican opposition: "La Revue du Cher" in 1832. In 1837 he became editor in chief of "Tam-tam" and was at the same time active in "L'Entr'acte", "Le Vert-vert", "Le Charivari", "Le Corsaire", "Le Commerce", "Le National", "Le Figaro" and "Le Binocle". He was collaborator at "La France Littéraire", "La Galerie des Contemporains", "La Réforme", "Mousquetaire" and "L'Artiste". In 1856 he was one of the founders of "La Gazette de Paris" of which he became editor in chief until 1859. He also published litterary works like "Petits mémoires d'une stalle d'orchestre", "Petites comédies de boudoir" and "Alexandre Dumas à la maison d'or". He wrote Vaudeville plays like "Partie à trois" and "Panier de pèches" and he published "Les Mariages d'aujourd'hui" and "La Rivière des songes".

BERGERON, Louis (Chauny, 1811 - Croissy, 1890)


Bergeron wrote for several papers, such as "Le National" and "Le Siècle". He was an ardent republican and participated in the uprisings at Saint-Merri in June 1832. He was accused of having shot Louis-Philippe when traversing the Pont Royal, but was acquitted. Bergeron was sent to Aisne as commissioner of the Republic. He published a collection of "Fables démocratiques" and some novels: "L'Officier de marine" and "Une Jeunesse orageuse". Among his plays: "L'Andalouse de Paris" and "Un neveu, s'il vous plaît" (in one act).
BERTHAUD, Louis (Lyon, 1810 - Chaillot, 1847)

Journalist and poet
Berthaud wrote several articles for "Le Charivari". He founded "L'Homme rouge", a weekly publication in verses, and "Asmodée", a satire. He published some poetry: "Une voix dans Paris" (1833) and "La Moléide ou la résurrection des morts" (1839) and Vaudeville plays: "Un mois à Naples" and "Jean le cocher". His novel "Chemin du ciel" was published after his death in "La Réforme".
BOILAY, Antoine-Fortuné (Auvergne, c. 1802 - Paris, November 22, 1866)

Boilay was journalist in the province. In 1836, he came to Paris where he worked at the paper "Le Corsaire" attacking Thiers. Then he collaborated at "Le Constitutionnel" working under the inspiration of Thiers who promised him a prefecture. Not having received it, Boilay changed in 1842 to the group of Guizot who decorated him and gave him the leadership of the asile de Charenton. After the révolution of 1848, Boilay, returned to "Le Constitutionnel". He was nominated general secretary of the national counsel.
BRIFFAULT, Eugène-Victor (Périgueux, 1794/99 - Charenton, October 11, 1854)

Writer and publicist
Briffault was a dramatic critic of "Le Temps" and he collaborated at "Le Figaro", "Le Siècle" and "Le Corsaire". He wrote "Le Viveur" for the publication "Les Français peints par eux-mêmes". He published "Historiettes contemporaines", "Paris dans l'eau", "Paris à table" and "Le Secret de Rome au XIXe siècle".
CARAGUEL, Clément (Mazarmet, 1819 - Paris, November 21, 1882)

Journalist and writer
Caraguel worked as a journalist in Paris, where he collaborated with "Le Vert-vert", "Le National", "L'Entr'acte" and "La Revue de Paris". From 1848 on he was editor of "Le Charivari". He was one of the few journalists of the opposition who were tolerated by the imperial governement. Among his novals are "Quatre mois en mer" (1840), "Les Soirées de Taverny" (1854), "Messieurs les Cosaques" (1854-55), "Souvenirs et aventures d'un volontaire garibaldien" (1861). He also wrote two comedies: "Le Bourgeois" (1852) and "Les Bienfaits de Champavert" (1862) in collaboration with Henri Rochefort.
CHAPELLE, Paul-Aimé (Beaumont, 1806)
(pseudonymes: Laurencin, Léonard, Lucy, Auvray)

Drama author
Among his various vaudeville plays are "Ma femme et mon parapluie", "L'Abbé galant", "Les Mystères de ma femme" and "La Nouvelle Hermione".
CLAUDON, Théodore-François-Charles (Bay-sur Aube, 1802 - ?)

Journalist and writer
Claudon collaborated with a great number of papers, "Le Charivari" was one of them. He published the translation of two novels: "Les Exclusifs" and "Oui et non". He wrote "Le Cabinet noir", "Thérèse ou la Prédiction" and "Le Baron d'Holbach".
CORDELLIER-DELANOUE, Étienne-Casmire-Hippolyte (Grenoble, September 19, 1806 - Paris, November 14,1854)

Writer and poet
Cordellier-Delanoue published articles in "La Carrière des lettres" and articles on famous musicians in "La France littéraire". He wrote novels ("Kernoux le fou" and "Le Barbier de Louis XI") and theater plays. Among his plays are "Napoléon Bonaparte" (1831) and "Bathilde" (1839), with Alexandre Dumas as anonymous collaborator, and two vaudeville plays: "Qui dort dîne" and "Une épreuve avant la lettre".
DELORD, Taxile (Avignon, November 25,1815 - ?)


Caricature by Benjamin. Le Charivari 1840 or 1841
Delord started his carreer in 1834 at the "Sémaphore de Marseille", then moved to Paris, where he collaborated with "Le Vert-vert" (1837) and "Le Messager". In 1842 he became editor in chief of "Le Charivari", a position he kept until 1858 with only one interruption. Then he worked for "Le Siècle" as a literary collaborator and later as political editor. In 1867, Delord left "Le Siècle" to go to "L'Avenir national", but came back in 1869. He also wrote articles for "La Revue nationale" and other publications. Delord was several times a candidate for legislative elections in the Second Empire. Once elected to the Assemblée, he constantly voted with the republican left. He wrote several works: "Physiologie de la Parisienne", the text for "Les Fleurs animées" by Grandville and "Histoire du Second Empire" and he wrote one play in 1854, which was performed at the Odéon: "La Fin de la comédie".
DE MOLÉRI (Hippolyte-Jules De Molière) (Nantes, August 3, 1802 - December 26, 1877)

Writer of novels and plays
De Moléri originally studies law and medicine. He wrote about twenty theater plays, among which: "Le Gendre d'un millionnaire", comedy in five acts, and "Le Revers de la médaille", comedy in three acts. Some of his novels were: "Le Marquis de Montclar" (1851), "Petits drames bourgeois" (1856), "L'Amour et la musique" (1867), "La Terre promise" (1867), "Guide de Paris à Strasbourg" (1854) and "Guide de Paris à Corbeil et à Orléans" (1859).
DESNOYERS, Louis (Replonges, 1805 - Paris, December 17, 1868)

Writer and journalist
After his studies in Autun and in Mâcon, Desnoyers worked as professor for humanities at the collège privé de Magnac-Laval. Later he became a clerc of a notary, studied music and finally came to Paris, where he enrolled in law school in 1828. In 1829, he founded a political and litterary newspaper to which he gave each month a different name in order to avoid having to pay taxes: "Le Sylphe", "Trilby", "Le Lutin", "Le Follet". As director of "Le Sylphe" he signed the portests of the Parisian journalists against the laws of July 1830. After the revolution financial problems forced him to stop writing and he returned to his village. The following year, he returned to Paris and worked for "Le Figaro" and "Le Corsaire". He was forced to hide for some time after the Fieschi attempt, reappeared again to found the paper "Le Siècle" together with Armand Dutacq. In 1837, he contributed to the foundation of "la Société des gens de lettres".
ESQUIROS, Henri-François-Alphonse (Paris, May 24, 1814 - Paris, November 22, 1866),

Writer and poet
In 1834 Esquiros started to publish some poems: "Les Hirondelles", which received little attention. Then he wrote two novels: "Le Magicien" (1838) and "Charlotte Corday" (1840). In 1840 he published "Evangile du peuple", a philosophical comment on the life of Jesus which resulted in an eight months imprisonment at the prison of Ste-Pélagie and a fine of 500 francs. During this time he composed some works in the socialist spirit. He published the "Histoire des Montagnards" in 1847, saluted with joy the proclamation of the Republic, was director at "L'Accusateur public", "Le Peuple" and "La Tribune nationale". He became elected representent of the Saône-et-Loire Departement on March 10, 1850, where he was seated at the extreme left. After the invalidation of his election he was sent back to the legislative assembly on April 28 avril. He fled to England, published several volumes on that country and published articles at "La Revue des Deux Mondes".
FORTOUL, Hippolyte-Nicholas-Honoré (Digne, August 13, 1811 - Ems, July 7, 1859)

Journalist and politician
After Fortoul had finished his studies at the collège de Lyon, he enrolled at law school in Paris in 1829. He started studying art history, journalisme, did literary criticism at "Le Droit", "Le Monde" and "Le National", wrote articles for "La Revue encyclopédique", "La Revue de Paris" and "La Revue des Deux Mondes". He was among the revolutionaries during the days of July. In May 1841, he started teaching French literature at Toulouse and in 1846 he became rector and dean of the faculty of letters in Aix. Fortoul tended more and more to the right and became suspect to his old companions of the extreme left. After the Revolution of February 1848, he was seated at the right of the Chamber and entered the party of Louis Napoléon. In 1851, he became minister of the marine and the colonies in the cabinet of Thérigny. After December 2, 1851, Fortoul entered the ministry of public education. In July 1853 he was nominated Senator and on January 1, 1855 became officer of the Légion d'honneur.
FRÉMY, Arnould (July 17, 1809 - ?)

Frémy collaborated with a great number of publications and papers, such as "Le Peuple", "Le Siècle", "Le Charivari" and "L'Avenir national". He received his doctorate in literature in 1843. In 1847, he became professor in Lyon, later in Strasbourg. He published various novels and short stories, among which "Les Deux anges", "La Chasse aux fantômes" and "Les Femmes proscrites". He also wrote comedies for "l'Odéon", like "Le Loup dans la bergerie" and "La Réclame".
GIGAULT de la Bédollière , Emile (Paris, May 24, 1814 - ?)
(pseudonymes: Emile Gigault and Anthony Dubourg)
His first publication was a work written in verses and in prose: "Psyché". He published satirical works in "Le Tyrtée" and articles in "Le Matinal", "Le Charivari", "La Revue comique à l'usage des gens sérieux", "L'Almanach prophétique", "Le Siècle" and "Le Livre des petits enfants". He was one of the main editors of "Coin du feu", "L'Européen" and "Le Siècle". He was one of the founders of "L'Univers illustré" and of "L'Européen". He wrote articles, poems, songs, novels and translations from English, Spanish and Latin among which can be found "Les Soirées d'hiver", "Les Beautés des victoires et des conquêtes des Français de 1792 à 1815", and "L'Histoire de la mère Michel et de son chat".
GOZLAN, Léon (Marseille, September 11, 1803 - Paris, 1866)

His first work was "Le Triomphe des omnibus". He published articles in "L'Incorruptible", "Le Figaro", "Le Corsaire", "Le Constitutionnel", "Le Charivari", "Le Journal", "Le Pays", "La Presse", "L'Europe littéraire", "Le Globe", "La Revue des Deux Mondes", "La Revue de Paris" and "La Revue britannique". After a trip to Senegal, he wrote "Pour avoir voulu imiter Robinson Crusoë" for "Le Musée des familles". He wrote several novels, among which "Le Notaire de Chantilly", "Le Médecin du Pecq" and "Les Mémoires d'un apothicaire", as well as satires: "Lilas de Perse", "Frédérique", and "L'Homme arrivé". He did some plays for theater and vaudeville: "La Main droite et la main gauche", "Le Lion empaillé" and "Trois rois, trois dames". He was nominated officer of the Légion d`honneur and President of the literary society.
HUART, Louis (Trènes, Allemagne 1813 - Paris, 1865)

Writer and journalist
Huart's literary debut was his publication "Quand on a vingt ans, histoire de la rue Saint-Jacques". He worked for "Le Charivari", of which he later became editor in chief and then director. He published articles in "Le Tailleur", "Le Médecin", "Le Garde National" and "L'Etudiant" as well as in "Les Cent et un Robert Macaires", "Le Comic almanach", "Le Keepsake comique pour 1843" and "Le Musée pour rire". In 1855, he acquired the management of the small theater "Folies-Nouvelles".
LUCAS, Hippolyte-Julien-Joseph (Rennes, 1807 - ?)

Lucas started his literary carreer at "Le Globe" where he had to translate the english parliamentary sessions and articles of the "Edinbourgh Revue". He worked for "Le Bon sens", "Le National", "L'Artiste", "La Revue du progrès" and "La Nouvelle Minerve". Lucas became a drama critic, then literary writer at "Le Siècle". His translations of works by Lope de Vega, Calderon and Ararcon were performed at the "Odeon" and "Théâtre Français": "L'Hameçon de phénice", "Le Médecin de son honneur" and "Le Tisserand de Ségovie". He published a collection of poems and short stories entitled "Le Cœur et le monde" and "L'Histoire philosophique et littéraire du Théâtre-Français, Portefeuille d'un journaliste" and "Caractères et portraits de femmes" amongst other titles. He also worked for the "Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle" and he wrote opera librettos like "Bélisaire", "La Bouquetière", "L'Etoile de Séville" and "Le Siège de Leyde".
MOREAU, Hégésippe (Paris, 1810 - Paris, 1838)

Moreau was the founder of "Némésis", a paper written in verses. He published a volume of poetry entitled "Le Myosotis" and in prose he wrote "Le Gui de chêne", "La Souris blanche", "Les Petits souliers", "Thérèse Sureau" and "Le Neveu de la fruitière". His life was marked by poverty and hunger.


Caricature by Nadar. Le Journal pour Rire Feb. 27, 1852
MOREAU, Hégésippe (Paris, 1810 - Paris, 1838)

Moreau was the founder of "Némésis", a paper written in verses. He published a volume of poetry entitled "Le Myosotis" and in prose he wrote "Le Gui de chêne", "La Souris blanche", "Les Petits souliers", "Thérèse Sureau" and "Le Neveu de la fruitière". His life was marked by poverty and hunger.
PHILIPON, Charles (Lyon, 1802 - Paris, 1862)

Artist and journalist

Caricature by Benjamin
In november 1832, Philipon founded "Le Charivari" and was its director during six years. He sold it in 1842 to a group of shareholders. He founded other newspapers: "Le Robert", in collaboration with Daumier, "Le Musée pour rire", "Les Physiologies", "Le Journal pour rire" (became "Le Journal amusant"), "Le Musée anglo-français". His articles and his drawings were published in "Les Cent et un Macaires", "L'Almanach prophétique" and in political brochures like "Aux prolétaires" and others. His drawings are "L'Histoire de Polichinelle, enfant prodigue" and "L'Histoire de Touche-à-tout, le mauvais sujet". He published the first political caricatures after the July 1830 revolution in the illustrated newspaper "La Caricature".
PYAT, Félix (Vierzon, October 4, 1810 - ?)

Drama author and politician

Caricature by Benjamin. Le Charivari in 1838
Pyat was a collaborator at "Le Charivari", "Le Figaro", "La Revue de Paris", "L'Artiste", "La Revue démocratique", "Le Siècle" and "Le National". He became director of "La Revue britannique", one of the editors of "Le Rappel" and he founded "Le Combat". He was an elected representative at the constituent assembly. On May 13, 1849, he signed the call to arms directed by Ledru-Rollin. He fled and was condemned to deportation by the High Court of Justice. During his exile of 20 years, he lived in Belgium and England and after the general amnesty of August 15, 1869 returned to France where he was condemned to 17 months of prison for press delicts and in August 1870 to another 5 years of prison. On March 24, 1873 he was sentenced to death by the third war council.
REYBAUD, Marie-Roche-Louis (Marseille, 1799)
(pseudonym: Léon Durocher)

Writer, publicist and politician
Reybaud published articles in "L'Indépendant des Bouches-du-Rhône", "La Révolution de 1830", "La Tribune", "Le Constitutionnel", "Le Corsaire", "Le National", "Le Journal des économistes", "La Revue des Deux Mondes", "Le Journal des Débats", "La Revue maritime", "Le Dictionnaire de la conversation", "Le Dictionnaire du commerce" and "Le Dictionnaire d`économie politique". He also worked as an editor at "Le Voleur Politique". He was politically engaged and was elected in Marseille in 1846 and in 1848 at Bouches-du-Rhône as a representative of the people. He edited "Le Voyage autour du monde", by Dumont-d'Urville and "Le Voyage dans les deux Amériques" by d'Orbigny. Reybaud wrote, among other works, "Jérôme Paturot à la recherde d'une position sociale", "L'Histoire scientifique et militaire de l'expédition française en Egypte", "La Condition des ouvriers en soie", "L'Industrie en Europe", "Scènes de la vie moderne" and "La Vie de l'employé".
SECOND, Albéric Angoulême (1816 - June 2, 1887)

Author and journalist

Caricature by Benjamin. Le Charivari 1838 or 1839
Second became director of "L'Entr'Acte", was one of the founders of the weekly review "La Comédie Parisienne" and of "Le Grand Journal". In 1860 he was editor of "Le Figaro". At the same time he was nominated sous-préfet of Castellane in the Basses-Pyrénées and in 1859 he was decorated with the Légion d'honneur. He published articles and novels like "Les Mémoires d'un poisson rouge", "Les Petits mystères de l'Opéra", "La Semaine des quatre jeudis" and "La Vicomtesse Alice". He wrote Vaudeville plays like "Trichemont fils" and "Un Dragon de vertu", as well as theater plays like "La Peur du mal" and "Le Baiser anonyme".
SUE, Joseph Marie Eugène (Jan. 20, 1804 - Aug. 3, 1857)


Caricature by Benjamin. Le Charivari
He was born in Paris, the son of a distinguished surgeon in Napoleon's army, and is said to have had the Empress Joséphine for godmother. Sue himself acted as surgeon both in the Spanish campaign undertaken by France in 1823 and at the Battle of Navarino (1828). In 1829 his father's death put him in possession of a considerable fortune, and he settled in Paris.

Daumier illustrated some of his books, like "Le Juif Errant" and "Les Mystères de Paris".