Daumier’s Life

DATEBIOGRAPHY OF HONORÉ DAUMIERHISTORICAL & CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1798


A. SENEFELDER invents lithography

1808


February 26
HONORÉ VICTORIN DAUMIER is born at 3 p.m. as son of the glazier and poet JEAN (Auguste) BAPTISTE LOUIS DAUMIER and of CÉCILE CATHERINE PHILIP in Marseilles. The birth place was at the corner of 11 Place Saint-Martin and Rue de Lyon. His parents gave him the nickname NORIN.
GOETHE writes "Faust"part 1. - Carl SPITZWEG is born. - Birth of NAPOLEON III. - Napoleon I and Alexander I of Russia meet.
February 29
Honoré was baptized at the Église Saint Martin. A birth register can be found in the archives of the Archdiocese of Marseilles.

1813


July 17
A sister, called BAPTISTINE, is born.

1815


April
Daumier's father moves to Paris to try his fortune as a poet.NAPOLEON I escapes from Elba.
March 19
Escape of LOUIS XVIII. Beginning of the "Hundred Days"
September 2
LENOIR introduces Daumier's father to Princess DE ROHAN.LASTEYRIE opens first lithographic shop in Paris.
November 26
The father presents his book to the Royal family.

1816


January 2
Daumier is sent to a boarding school.
October
The Daumier family moves from Marseilles to Paris.
October 13
Daumier's father presents his poems to the King.

1817


April 2
The first lithographs following Senefelder's procedure of 1802 are presented at the salon.
October 2
Introduction of a legal deposit for lithographs.

1819


February 2
The father publishes his play "Philippe II" in Paris.CHARLES PHILIPON moves from Lyon to Paris.

1820

Honoré takes on the job as an errand boy at a bayliff's office.

1821


March
He becomes an assistant at Delaunay's book shop located at the Palais-Royal. He makes his first drawings.
May 2
Daumier's brother ATHANASE MARIE GEORGES ALEXANDRE is born.

1822

The parents allow Honoré to study drawing and art with Alexandre LENOIR, who will introduce him to the paintings of RUBENS and TITIAN as well as to classical sculptures. Daumier moves on to study at the ACADÉMIE SUISSE and starts copying in the Louvre. Contacts to RAFFET, JEANRON and the sculptor PRÉAULT.Death of A. CANOVA. - SCHUBERT composes the "unfinished". - MENDEL, PASTEUR, SCHLIEMANN are born.
February 2
Daumier's future wife MARIE ALEXANDRINE DASSY is born in Paris.
August 2
Daumier registers his first prints with the legal deposit: LD A (DR4003).
September 2
Daumier registers his first prints with the legal deposit: LD B(DR4004)

1823

Daumier's father publishes LES VEILLES POETIQUES.BEETHOVEN composes the 9th symphony.

1824


May
2 more lithographs are published by Daumier (not listed by LD).GOYA learns lithography in Paris and Bordeaux. - CHARLES X succeeds his brother LOUIS XVIII

1825

Daumier works as an assistant to the lithographer BÉLLIARD. - He creates his first lithographic copies of drawings from the Louvre.Death of DAVID and J. PAUL.

1826

First photo by JOSEPH NIEPCE.

1827

The father publishes a poem in the "Courenne des Poètes Français".

1828

Daumier takes up studies at the school of BOUDIN.There are 23 lithographic shops in the Seine area, 500 workers on 180 presses, turnover 3 million francs p.a.

1829

Daumier's first lithographs appear in LA SILHOUETTE, which was published by RATIER und RICOURT. - He still lives with his parents at 33 Rue de la Barillerie, close to the Palais de Justice.GOYA dies 1828 in Bordeaux
December
Opening of a caricature gallery by AUBERT and his brother in law, PHILIPON at Galerie Véro-Dodat. DANTAN's sculptures exhibited.

1830


Daumier makes his first political caricatures. Meets PHILIPON, BALZAC.Birth of CAMILLE PISSARRO.
July 7
CHARLES X passes 4 decrees which lead to the July-Revolution(Freedom of Press, elections, etc.).
July 27-29
He participates in the July-Revolution in Paris. - On advice of PRÉAULT first experiences with sculptures.CHARLES DARWIN starts his journey around the world.
July 27-29
July-Revolution "LES TROIS GLORIEUSES".
July 31
DUC LOUIS-PHILIPPE d' ORLÉANS appointed as General Governor of the country.
August 2
CHARLES X abdicts in favour of his grandson, the DUC de BORDEAUX. Exile in England.
August 30
The Parliament offers the Royal Crown to the DUC d' ORLÉANS.
August 8
LOUIS-PHILIPPE d' ORLÉANS is sworn in as King of the French people. Becomes King LOUIS-PHILIPPE, known as the "Roi Bourgeois" (1830-1848).
September 9
Daumier DR12: suppression of publication by the censor. - attacks the House of Representatives.
November 4
Starts drafting single lithographs for LA CARICATURE, together with TRAVIÈS, MONNIER, GRANDVILLE, DEVÉRIA, and BALZAC.CHARLES PHILIPON and his brother-in-law AUBERT establish the satirical paper "LA CARICATURE"
December 2
New law guarantees freedom of the press.
December 12
DR18: Daumier attacks LOUIS-PHILIPPE for the first time.

1831


March
Risk of state insolvency under the government of PÉRIER, SÉBASTIANI, and d'ARGOUT.
March/April
Introduction of new electoral laws.
June 1
"DR23," UN HÉROS DE JUILLETLOBAU suppresses republican demonstrations.
July
Election to the House of Representatives
October 21
DR29, Daumier's second attack on LOUIS-PHILIPPE.The Army is used against Republicans in Paris.
November
Suppression of the revolt of the weavers in Lyon.
November 2
PHILIPON was found guilty for publishing 2 lithographs aimed at the King.
December 7
Accusation and acquittal of Daumier and PHILIPON in connection with DR32.Legal proceedings against the opposition.
December 15
DR33: publication was suppressed by the censor.
December 15
DR34: publication of "GARGANTUA". The government destroys the lithographic stone and seizes nearly all existing copies.

1832

MANET, W. BUSCH and GUSTAVE DORÉ are born.
January 2
PHILIPON imprisoned for 6 months.Death of GOETHE.
February 9
Daumier publishes his first lithograph for "LA CARICATURE": DR40.
DR35: Daumier is opposed to the division of Poland.LEROUX creates the word "Socialism". - HECTOR BERLIOZ composes the "Symphonie fantastique".
February 23
"GARGANTUA" ( DR34) leads to legal proceedings and arrest of DAUMIER, DELAPORTE, and AUBERT. Daumier is sentenced to 6 months prison on parole for lèse-majesté and 500 Francs penalty. The sentence is suspended.
February 23
DR41: "Le cauchemar" (the nightmare). Daumier signs as "ROGELIN". He attacks LAFAYETTE. The symbolic "pear" appears.
March 2
PHILIPON is again convicted.
March 8
DR42: "Les masques de 1831".
April 2
Daumier starts work on the "Busts".
May 12
DR36: Daumier attacks THIERS for the first time.
May 31
DR44: The government is shown as a madhouse.
July 2
PHILIPON again imprisoned.
August 2
Reinstatement of the suspended prison sentence of February
August 27
Daumier goes to prison at Sainte-PÉLAGIE. Meets with ARSÈNE ALEXANDRE and GABRIEL DECAMPS.
March-June
Outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Paris, 19'000 victims.
May
Prime Minister PÉRIER dies of cholera.
June
Street fights of the workers in the streets of Paris and Lyon.
October
New Government: SOULT, THIERS, and BROGLIE.
November 2
Daumier is transferred from the Sainte-PÉLAGIE prison to Dr Pinel's private clinic.
December 1
Foundation of the CHARIVARI by CHARLES PHILIPON.

1833


January 14
Daumier's lithograph drawn in prison, printed by RAMELET. ("L'Imagination").F.ROPS and JOHANNES Brahms are born.
January 24
Daumier's first lithographs in the CHARIVARI: "Royer Collard", DR136 - DR141.Birth of A. NOBEL.
January 27
End of Daumier's imprisonment.
February 4
End of PHILIPON's imprisonment.
February
Daumier leaves home and rents an apartment in Rue Saint-Denis. He meets HUET and DIAZ.
November
The CHARIVARI introduces wood engravings (reliefs) in the frontispice.

1834

Daumier creates prints for CHARIVARI and LA CARICATURE. At the same time he makes 36 terracotta busts portraying parlamentarians of his time.DEGAS and MARK TWAIN are born.
February 17
Law against Freedom of the Press.
March 25
Daumier draws his 5 famous prints to appear between January and July 1834 in the "ASSOCIATION MENSUELLE".Law against political parties. Unrest in Paris.
April
Brutal suppression of the Republican revolt in Lyon and Paris. ("RUE TRANSNONAIN").
May
Death of LAFAYETTE.
June
New elections and a new crisis of Government.
June 2
Theatre play of "Robert Macaire" written and staged by Frédéric LEMAITRE.

1835


March
New Government consisting of THIERS, BROGLIE, GUIZOT, and PERSIL.
May
Trial against participants in the revolt of April 1834.
July
As a result of the new law against freedom of the press, Daumier makes fewer political and more socio-critical lithographs.Assault of FIESCHI against LOUIS-PHILIPPE. -
G. DONIZETTI composes "Lucia di Lammermoor". -
Death of A.von HUMBOLDT.
August 2
DR130: Daumier's last political caricature of this period.
August 29
Due to increasing restrictions against Freedom of the Press, LA CARICATURE ceases publication.
Daumier's monthly income between 1835 and 1845 amounted to 500-600 Francs.

1836


February
New Government consisting of THIERS, PERSIL, GUIZOT, and MONTALIVET.
August 20
The first drawing of the series "ROBERT MACAIRE" appears.
September
New Goverment with MOLÉ, PERSIL, and GUIZOT.
October
First attempt of a royalistic coup d'état by LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE.
November
CHARLES X dies in Goritz. - Start of modern journalism featuring advertising and series.

1837


September
BENJAMIN ROUBAUD (1811-1847) publishes a colour lithograph in the "Panthéon Charivarique" portrayi