Daumier’s Life2018-05-29T14:28:09+00:00

Daumier’s Life

 DATEBIOGRAPHY OF HONORÉ DAUMIER HISTORICAL & CULTURAL BACKGROUND

1798


A. SENEFELDER invents lithography

1808


February 26
HONORÉ VICTORIN DAUMIER is born at 3 p.m. as son of the glazier and poet JEAN (Auguste) BAPTISTE LOUIS DAUMIER and of CÉCILE CATHERINE PHILIP in Marseilles. The birth place was at the corner of 11 Place Saint-Martin and Rue de Lyon. His parents gave him the nickname NORIN.
GOETHE writes "Faust"part 1. - Carl SPITZWEG is born. - Birth of NAPOLEON III. - Napoleon I and Alexander I of Russia meet.
February 29
Honoré was baptized at the Église Saint Martin. A birth register can be found in the archives of the Archdiocese of Marseilles.

1813


July 17
A sister, called BAPTISTINE, is born.

1815


April
Daumier's father moves to Paris to try his fortune as a poet.NAPOLEON I escapes from Elba.
March 19
Escape of LOUIS XVIII. Beginning of the "Hundred Days"
September 2
LENOIR introduces Daumier's father to Princess DE ROHAN.LASTEYRIE opens first lithographic shop in Paris.
November 26
The father presents his book to the Royal family.

1816


January 2
Daumier is sent to a boarding school.
October
The Daumier family moves from Marseilles to Paris.
October 13
Daumier's father presents his poems to the King.

1817


April 2
The first lithographs following Senefelder's procedure of 1802 are presented at the salon.
October 2
Introduction of a legal deposit for lithographs.

1819


February 2
The father publishes his play "Philippe II" in Paris.CHARLES PHILIPON moves from Lyon to Paris.

1820

Honoré takes on the job as an errand boy at a bayliff's office.

1821


March
He becomes an assistant at Delaunay's book shop located at the Palais-Royal. He makes his first drawings.
May 2
Daumier's brother ATHANASE MARIE GEORGES ALEXANDRE is born.

1822

The parents allow Honoré to study drawing and art with Alexandre LENOIR, who will introduce him to the paintings of RUBENS and TITIAN as well as to classical sculptures. Daumier moves on to study at the ACADÉMIE SUISSE and starts copying in the Louvre. Contacts to RAFFET, JEANRON and the sculptor PRÉAULT.Death of A. CANOVA. - SCHUBERT composes the "unfinished". - MENDEL, PASTEUR, SCHLIEMANN are born.
February 2
Daumier's future wife MARIE ALEXANDRINE DASSY is born in Paris.
August 2
Daumier registers his first prints with the legal deposit: LD A (DR4003).
September 2
Daumier registers his first prints with the legal deposit: LD B(DR4004)

1823

Daumier's father publishes LES VEILLES POETIQUES.BEETHOVEN composes the 9th symphony.

1824


May
2 more lithographs are published by Daumier (not listed by LD).GOYA learns lithography in Paris and Bordeaux. - CHARLES X succeeds his brother LOUIS XVIII

1825

Daumier works as an assistant to the lithographer BÉLLIARD. - He creates his first lithographic copies of drawings from the Louvre.Death of DAVID and J. PAUL.

1826

First photo by JOSEPH NIEPCE.

1827

The father publishes a poem in the "Courenne des Poètes Français".

1828

Daumier takes up studies at the school of BOUDIN.There are 23 lithographic shops in the Seine area, 500 workers on 180 presses, turnover 3 million francs p.a.

1829

Daumier's first lithographs appear in LA SILHOUETTE, which was published by RATIER und RICOURT. - He still lives with his parents at 33 Rue de la Barillerie, close to the Palais de Justice.GOYA dies 1828 in Bordeaux
December
Opening of a caricature gallery by AUBERT and his brother in law, PHILIPON at Galerie Véro-Dodat. DANTAN's sculptures exhibited.

1830


Daumier makes his first political caricatures. Meets PHILIPON, BALZAC.Birth of CAMILLE PISSARRO.
July 7
CHARLES X passes 4 decrees which lead to the July-Revolution(Freedom of Press, elections, etc.).
July 27-29
He participates in the July-Revolution in Paris. - On advice of PRÉAULT first experiences with sculptures.CHARLES DARWIN starts his journey around the world.
July 27-29
July-Revolution "LES TROIS GLORIEUSES".
July 31
DUC LOUIS-PHILIPPE d' ORLÉANS appointed as General Governor of the country.
August 2
CHARLES X abdicts in favour of his grandson, the DUC de BORDEAUX. Exile in England.
August 30
The Parliament offers the Royal Crown to the DUC d' ORLÉANS.
August 8
LOUIS-PHILIPPE d' ORLÉANS is sworn in as King of the French people. Becomes King LOUIS-PHILIPPE, known as the "Roi Bourgeois" (1830-1848).
September 9
Daumier DR12: suppression of publication by the censor. - attacks the House of Representatives.
November 4
Starts drafting single lithographs for LA CARICATURE, together with TRAVIÈS, MONNIER, GRANDVILLE, DEVÉRIA, and BALZAC.CHARLES PHILIPON and his brother-in-law AUBERT establish the satirical paper "LA CARICATURE"
December 2
New law guarantees freedom of the press.
December 12
DR18: Daumier attacks LOUIS-PHILIPPE for the first time.

1831


March
Risk of state insolvency under the government of PÉRIER, SÉBASTIANI, and d'ARGOUT.
March/April
Introduction of new electoral laws.
June 1
"DR23," UN HÉROS DE JUILLETLOBAU suppresses republican demonstrations.
July
Election to the House of Representatives
October 21
DR29, Daumier's second attack on LOUIS-PHILIPPE.The Army is used against Republicans in Paris.
November
Suppression of the revolt of the weavers in Lyon.
November 2
PHILIPON was found guilty for publishing 2 lithographs aimed at the King.
December 7
Accusation and acquittal of Daumier and PHILIPON in connection with DR32.Legal proceedings against the opposition.
December 15
DR33: publication was suppressed by the censor.
December 15
DR34: publication of "GARGANTUA". The government destroys the lithographic stone and seizes nearly all existing copies.

1832

MANET, W. BUSCH and GUSTAVE DORÉ are born.
January 2
PHILIPON imprisoned for 6 months.Death of GOETHE.
February 9
Daumier publishes his first lithograph for "LA CARICATURE": DR40.
DR35: Daumier is opposed to the division of Poland.LEROUX creates the word "Socialism". - HECTOR BERLIOZ composes the "Symphonie fantastique".
February 23
"GARGANTUA" ( DR34) leads to legal proceedings and arrest of DAUMIER, DELAPORTE, and AUBERT. Daumier is sentenced to 6 months prison on parole for lèse-majesté and 500 Francs penalty. The sentence is suspended.
February 23
DR41: "Le cauchemar" (the nightmare). Daumier signs as "ROGELIN". He attacks LAFAYETTE. The symbolic "pear" appears.
March 2
PHILIPON is again convicted.
March 8
DR42: "Les masques de 1831".
April 2
Daumier starts work on the "Busts".
May 12
DR36: Daumier attacks THIERS for the first time.
May 31
DR44: The government is shown as a madhouse.
July 2
PHILIPON again imprisoned.
August 2
Reinstatement of the suspended prison sentence of February
August 27
Daumier goes to prison at Sainte-PÉLAGIE. Meets with ARSÈNE ALEXANDRE and GABRIEL DECAMPS.
March-June
Outbreak of a cholera epidemic in Paris, 19'000 victims.
May
Prime Minister PÉRIER dies of cholera.
June
Street fights of the workers in the streets of Paris and Lyon.
October
New Government: SOULT, THIERS, and BROGLIE.
November 2
Daumier is transferred from the Sainte-PÉLAGIE prison to Dr Pinel's private clinic.
December 1
Foundation of the CHARIVARI by CHARLES PHILIPON.

1833


January 14
Daumier's lithograph drawn in prison, printed by RAMELET. ("L'Imagination").F.ROPS and JOHANNES Brahms are born.
January 24
Daumier's first lithographs in the CHARIVARI: "Royer Collard", DR136 - DR141.Birth of A. NOBEL.
January 27
End of Daumier's imprisonment.
February 4
End of PHILIPON's imprisonment.
February
Daumier leaves home and rents an apartment in Rue Saint-Denis. He meets HUET and DIAZ.
November
The CHARIVARI introduces wood engravings (reliefs) in the frontispice.

1834

Daumier creates prints for CHARIVARI and LA CARICATURE. At the same time he makes 36 terracotta busts portraying parlamentarians of his time.DEGAS and MARK TWAIN are born.
February 17
Law against Freedom of the Press.
March 25
Daumier draws his 5 famous prints to appear between January and July 1834 in the "ASSOCIATION MENSUELLE".Law against political parties. Unrest in Paris.
April
Brutal suppression of the Republican revolt in Lyon and Paris. ("RUE TRANSNONAIN").
May
Death of LAFAYETTE.
June
New elections and a new crisis of Government.
June 2
Theatre play of "Robert Macaire" written and staged by Frédéric LEMAITRE.

1835


March
New Government consisting of THIERS, BROGLIE, GUIZOT, and PERSIL.
May
Trial against participants in the revolt of April 1834.
July
As a result of the new law against freedom of the press, Daumier makes fewer political and more socio-critical lithographs.Assault of FIESCHI against LOUIS-PHILIPPE. -
G. DONIZETTI composes "Lucia di Lammermoor". -
Death of A.von HUMBOLDT.
August 2
DR130: Daumier's last political caricature of this period.
August 29
Due to increasing restrictions against Freedom of the Press, LA CARICATURE ceases publication.
Daumier's monthly income between 1835 and 1845 amounted to 500-600 Francs.

1836


February
New Government consisting of THIERS, PERSIL, GUIZOT, and MONTALIVET.
August 20
The first drawing of the series "ROBERT MACAIRE" appears.
September
New Goverment with MOLÉ, PERSIL, and GUIZOT.
October
First attempt of a royalistic coup d'état by LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE.
November
CHARLES X dies in Goritz. - Start of modern journalism featuring advertising and series.

1837


September
BENJAMIN ROUBAUD (1811-1847) publishes a colour lithograph in the "Panthéon Charivarique" portraying Daumier smoking a pipe.
September 2
CHARIVARI publishes illustrated alphabets for children at AUBERT.
November
Daumier receives 40 Francs for each lithograph and 20 to 125 Francs for woodcuts.

1838

Apart from lithographs, Daumier starts with woodcuts and book illustrations for BALZAC, SUE etc. From 1838 to 1852 he produced some 600 wood engravings (more than 1'000 in the course of his life).

1839

M. DUTACQ becomes the new owner of the CHARIVARI. - Paul CEZANNE is born.
February 2
Daumier now receives 50 Francs per lithographic stone. His average monthly income amounts to 500-700 Francs.
Start of the series "MOEURS CONJUGALES" and "ÉMOTIONS PARISIENNES" (until 1842).Photography pioneered by DAGUERRE and NADAR gains importance.
May
PHILIPON publishes the CARICATURE PROVISOIRE with the collaboration of DAUMIER and BALZAC.PRUDHON's "Qu'est-ce que la propriété" appears. - MONET and RODIN are born in 1840

1840


March
Second unsuccessful coup d'état by LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE.

1841

Daumier's "HISTOIRE ANCIENNE" appears in the CHARIVARI.The railway system is being commercialized. - RENOIR is born.

1842


July
The Conservatives win the elections.
Daumier is repeatedly in financial difficulties.

1843

VICTOR HUGO publishes his play "Les Burgraves."Attempted alliance with PEEL-ABERDEEN, England.
September
Queen VICTORIA visits France.

1844

Daumier publishes the series "LES BAS-BLEUS", "LES ÉTRANGERS À PARIS", "LES PHILANTROPES DU JOUR" and "VOYAGE EN CHINE".
August
France bombards Tangiers.

1845

He publishes "LES GENS DE JUSTICE", "PASTORALES", and "PROFESSEURS ET MOUTARDS". He moves to 9, Quai d'Anjou on the Ile Saint-Louis, where he will remain until 1863.

1846

Publication of Daumier's "LES BONS BOURGEOIS"and "LES PAPAS".
February 2
Daumier's son is born.
April 16
Daumier marries the 24 years old seamstress MARIE ALÉXANDRINE DASSY (Dédine, Didine, Nini).

1847

The series "LOCATAIRES ET PROPRIÉTAIRES" appears. Friendship with BAUDELAIRE, JEANRON, BOULARD, DAUBIGNY, STEINHEIL, GEOFFROY-DECHAUME, PASCAL, ELMERICH, DECAMPS and others.
February 15
Meeting with BARYE and others to form an independent Salon (exhibitions). CHAMPFLEURY is appointed speaker for the group.
March
Proposals for an electoral reform are rejected.
July
The first Reform-banquet established in Paris.
September
Modification of Government: The conservative GUIZOT becomes Prime Minster.

1848

Death of Daumier's son.GAUGUIN and v. LILIENTHAL are born.
January 14
Prohibition of a reform-banquet in Paris.
FebruaryPublication of the "Communist Manifest" in London.
February 22-24
February-Revolution. King LOUIS-PHILIPPE abdicts and goes into exile to England.
February 25
Proclamation of the "Right for work".
April 23
Unions are supporting elections to the Legislative.
May 4
Proclamation of the "Second Republic".
June 21
Closing of the "National workshops" (unionized).
June 23-25
Bloody suppression of the labour movement and revolt in Paris by the prefect CAVAIGNAC. 3'000 workers are killed and 11'000 revolutionaries arrested.
June 24
Beginning of the military dictatorship of CAVAIGNAC.
August
New restrictions to the Freedom of the Press.
September 15
Daumier paints the oil painting "MADELEINE EN PRIÈRE" on commission by the Government.German National Assembly in the Paulskirche, Frankfurt. - Cholera epidemic in Europe.
November 21
Proclamation of a new Constitution.
December 10
First appearance in public as a painter with the painting "LA RÉPUBLIQUE NOURRIT SES ENFANTS ET LES INSTRUIT".LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE wins the elections by a large majority.

1849

The series " LES FEMMES SOCIALISTES" is being published.Birth of STRINDBERG, E.A. POE, death of CHOPIN.
May 13
Electoral victory of the Conservatives.
August
Cholera epidemic in France.

1850

The series "IDYLLES PARLEMENTAIRES" appears, as well as the oil painting "DON QUIXOTE AND SANCHO PANSA". Daumier creates a first model of the statuette "RATAPOIL". Friendship with DELACROIX.RICHARD WAGNER composes "Lohengrin". - Steamer connection betrween Bremen and New York. - BALZAC dies in Paris
May 15
A new law, "LOI FALLOUX", restores the leading role of the catholic church in school education.
May 31
Restrictions to the right to vote are introduced.
June 8
Press censorship is tightened.
August 26
LOUIS-PHILIPPE dies while in exile in England.

1851


January
Meeting with the historian Jules MICHELET.Death of W. TURNER.
April
The first version of "RATAPOIL" DR9637 is shown
New realignment of the Government.
July 19
CHAMPFLEURY publishes an enthusiastic article on Daumier.Parliament rejects a constitutional revision.
December 2
Coup d'état by LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE.
December 3-4
Resistance in Paris and in the provinces.
December 5-10
Oppositional politicians are arrested.
December 21
Plebiscite: LOUIS-NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE is elected as President for a period of 10 years.

1852

BAUDELAIRE, DE BANVILLE and CHAMPFLEURY are publishing articles and studies on Daumier.VINCENT van GOGH is born. GOUNOD writes Ulysse. - GIUSEPPE VERDI composes "La Traviata".
January 14
Presentation of a revised Constitution.
February 2
Decree to a new electoral law.
February 17
Again restriction of Freedom of the Press and introduction of State censorship for press and theater.
November 21
Plebiscite for the reintroduction of a revised system of monarchy. - Industrial development gains importance.
December 2
LOUIS is crowned as Emperor NAPOLÉON III.

1853

Daumier starts spending his summers in VALMONDOIS.HAUSSMANN demolishes the old Paris and starts modernizing the city (" les grands boulevards").

1854


March 28
France and England declare war against Russia.
September
Crimean War.
October
Siege of Sebastopol.

1855

Daumier paints various lawyers paintings.World Fair in Paris.

1856

Daumier has contacts with MILLET,COROT, and ROUSSEAU.H.HEINE dies in Paris
March 30
End of the Crimean War.

1857

Project for a lithographical series on the "Fables" of LAFONTAINE. - Daumier engages in drawing mainly theatrical scenes.War against China and first world economic crisis.

1858


February
Making of the series "EN CHINE".Assassination attempt on NAPOLÉON III.
February 2
Paris butchers lose their monopoly
ZILLE is born, OFFENBACH composes"Orphée aux Enfers"

1859

France and Sardinia declare war against Austria (MAGENTA und SOLFERINO).
November 10
Peace of Zurich. Lombardia becomes property of NAPOLÉON III.

1860


March
After having been dismissed by the CHARIVARI, Daumier starts drawing lithographs for various other papers and works on numerous oil paintings.Free Trade Agreement with England. - GUSTAV MAHLER and H. WOLF are born. - France und England occupy Beijing.

1861

"LA LAVEUSE AU QUAI D'ANJOU" (today at Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo) and "LES BUVEURS" shown at Martinet, Paris.French, English, and Spanish troops are sent to Mexico for collection of debts.

1862

Daumier publishes lithographs in Le BOULEVARD and LE MONDE ILLUSTRÉ (wood cuts). - Death of PHILIPON.2nd World Fair in London. Treaty of Saigon signed. - 3 Chinese provinces become French property.

1863

France occupies Mexico City. The Austrian MAXIMILIAN becomes Emperor of Mexico.
June 2
Bankruptcy of LE BOULEVARD.
October
Due to financial difficulties, Daumier moves from Ile St.- Louis to Boulevard Rochechouart, then to Rue l'Abbaye and finally to Boulevard Clichy.Birth of EDVARD MUNCH and HENRY FORD.
December 18
Daumier takes up work again at the CHARIVARI and the JOURNAL AMUSANT."Le déjeuner sur l'herbe" painted by MANET

1864

Daumiers concentrates on theater and lawyers themes.Strikes in Paris and easing of the press censorship.
September
First prints for the PETIT JOURNAL POUR RIRE.Foundation of the International Labour Association.

1865

Summer vacation at ROUSSEAU's house in Barbizon.Birth of JAN SIBELIUS.
BAUDELAIRE writes the "Vers pour le portrait de M. Daumier".WAGNER writes "Tristan and Isolde".
October 1
Daumier moves to VALMONDOIS.ABRAHAM LINCOLN is assassinated, end of US civil war.

1866

After intervention of the U.S., France pulls her troops out of Mexico. MAXIMILIAN will be shot by the revolutionary Government of Suarez.

1867

Daumier draws political themes again. He meets GAMBETTA.Käthe KOLLWITZ is born.
Daumier's eyesight starts deteriorating.

1868

His friends THÉODORE ROUSSEAU and BAUDELAIRE die. - COROT supports Daumier financially. - Daumier's last prints and drawings appear.Beginnig of the great strike movement in Paris, Lyon and Le Creusot.- Max SLEVOGT is born.

1869


November
Opening of the SUEZ CANAL. First performance of VERDI's "Aida".- "War and Peace" by TOLSTOI.

1870


May
Daumier has a presentiment of war between France and Prussia and creates passionate prints against the church and against war in general.DICKENS and DUMAS die. - Birth of BARLACH, FEININGER, ROUAULT. - SCHLIEMANN excavates Troy.
Daumier refuses to accept the cross of the "Légion d'Honneur".

1870/71

He works together with MANET, COROT, COURBET, and BONVIN to change the rules of admission to the Salons (art exhibitions).Start of the French-German war and designation of the German LEOPOLD as King of Spain.
September 1
The Prussians capture NAPOLÉON III.
September 4
Proclamation of the Third Republic.
September 19
BISMARCK'S troops have sourrounded Paris.

1871


January 28
Armistice.
February 13
THIERS is appointed Prime Minister.
February 26
Peace treaty of VERSAILLES. Alsacia becomes part of Germany.
March 18 to May 28
During the COMMUNE, Daumier is appointed to work in a commission for the protection of museums and objects of art in Paris.Establishment of the COMMUNE in Paris.
March 18
The Army and the National Guard are joined while the Government escapes to Versailles.
March 26
Victory of Socialists and Republicans at the elections for the Paris COMMUNE.
April 9
Supported by the Prussians, the Versailles Government bombards Paris. Blockade of Paris.
May 10
Peace treaty between Versailles and Prussia.
May 21
Massacre in the streets of Paris under MAC- MAHON against members of the COMMUNE.
May 27
Ending of the fights at Père-Lachaise cemetery, in Paris. 30'000 victims are counted, 40'000 were arrested and 3'000 deported.

1872


September
Daumier makes his only poster: "ENTREPOT D'IVRY"
(DR4008). ). Last print in Charivari DR3937.
Birth of PIET MONDRIAN and R. AMUNDSEN.

1873

Daumier, now almost blind, seizes working.
May 24
MAC-MAHON replaces THIERS.

1874

Daumier's house in Valmondois is registered in his name (purchased by Corot in 1868?).Death of MICHELET. - Birth of ARNOLD SCHÖNBERG, WINSTON CHURCHILL.

1875


January 30
France is finally declared a Republic.
February 2
Death of COROT and MILLET.

1877

Daumier receives a State pension of 1200 Francs annually.Death of COURBET.

1878


April 17
His pension is increased to 2400 Francs annually.Death of DAUBIGNY.
His friends prepare the first extensive exhibition at DURAND-RUEL, which however was not successful. Introductory speech by VICTOR HUGO.LOUIS PASTEUR publishes "The Microbes".

1879


January 3
MAC-MAHON abdicts.
February 10

Daumier dies at Valmondois at the age of 71.

Birth of KLEE, STALIN,TROTZKI and EINSTEIN.

1880


April 16
Transfer of Daumier's coffin to Paris and burial at Père-Lachaise cemetery.
THIERS dies one year after Daumier.

1888

ARSÈNE ALEXANDRE publishes the first Daumier biography.

1895


January 11
Death of Mme. Daumier at the age of 72, after having sold all remaining works of art of her husband for a lump sum of 1200 Francs.

1901

First comprehensive exhibition of Daumier's work in Paris.

1929


February 11
The „Société des Dessinateurs Humouristes“ with Forain as president placed a plaquette on Daumier's house at 9, Quai d’Anjou stating that he had lived there from 1846 and 1863.

2005

The Daumier-Register digital work catalogue of Daumier's oeuvre goes public

2008

200th anniversary of Daumier's birth. Important exhibitions, shows and retrospectives to be expected worldwide!
Daumier-Register arranged renovation of Daumier's grave at Père Lachaise financed by private contributions.